The first stage of the program consists of carrying out an agrarian diagnosis prior to development actions. This diagnosis focuses on agricultural production systems and their evolution over time. The state of the fish farming sector in Siem Reap will also be represented in order to highlight the bottlenecks and development opportunities that exist for the farming sector. In Cambodia DeFIP activities are focus on a research action approach to develop with smallholders new references for fish production answering to their expectations taking into account their constraints. Most farmers in Cambodia conduct a conventional rice production cycle, irrigated by natural precipitations. Some farmers, with an additional water source during the dry season, have the option of conducting short off-season cycles. Even though the regular cycle constitutes the bulk of the family's rice consumption over the year (main food), off-season cycles can lead to higher yields and profits. However, the conduct of these cycles is delicate, as the varieties used are less robust and can be affected by prolonged floods or droughts. The use of pond water for off-season cycling is possible. Since 2020, some fish farmers have been trying to increase their fish farming area by inserting a rice paddy plot juxtaposed to the pond. This inclusion is done simply by putting up a fence net around a perimeter that includes the whole system; the pond and the rice field. Farmers complain of losing fish

during floods, and the nets set up seem to be ineffective. Raising the dam and eventually building canals in the rice fields could be carried out, but the new innovative rice fish farmers in the province have not yet carried out this type of development. However, this is indeed one of the next steps in their process of improving their production system.

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